Sonja Haug (2002)
Family Status, Education and Occupational Status of Young Adults: An Analysis of Ethnic and Gender-Specific Differences – First Results of the Integration Survey Undertaken by the Federal Institute for Population Research (BiB)*
In: Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 27, 1/2002, p. 115-144, Opladen: Verlag Leske + Budrich, ISSN: 0340-2398
This article contains the initial results of the integration survey undertaken by the Federal Institute for Population Research. The respondents of German and Italian origin in the age group of 18-to-30 year-olds are largely unmarried, whilst one-third of respondents of Turkish origin are married and have one child.
In general, Germans attain higher educational and occupational status than respondents with a migration background, whilst persons of Italian origin do much better than those of Turkish origin. Respondents of Italian or Turkish origin who have German nationality have at the same time a much higher level of schooling than those of exclusively foreign nationality. Having German nationality considerably increases the probability of having graduated high school, in particular among the group of naturalised Turks. In contrast, the age of immigration does not have such a pronounced effect as had been anticipated. 'Educational natives', i.e. persons who immigrated at pre-school age or who were born in Germany, do not have a higher probability of graduating high school, allowing for nationality, than those who immigrated at a later age. No strong gender-related differences or age cohort impacts can be ascertained. In general, women somewhat more frequently obtain medium-level school-leaving qualifications, whilst men somewhat more commonly gain 'secondary modern' qualifications, as well as graduating from high school more frequently.
Germans are more often in the salaried sector, and more frequently hold managerial positions than respondents of Italian or Turkish origin. Persons of Italian or Turkish origin who have German nationality, moreover, have higher occupational positions than those with exclusively foreign nationality. Women more frequently work in salaried positions, but less frequently in managerial positions. Italian women are in a position very closely approximating that of German women, whilst Turkish women have a very low labour market participation. Turkish men very frequently work as unskilled or semi-skilled workers, but also to a higher-than-average degree as self-employed entrepreneurs in retail, in the trades, in the crafts, in industry and in services. The probability of gaining a salaried position largely depends on acquiring vocational training, as well as on school qualifications. The social inequality in occupational status among Germans and Italians is almost exclusively caused by differences in formal education, whilst the chances of gaining a salaried position are much worse for persons of Turkish origin, irrespective of nationality, age on immigration or education. Slight gender-specific differences remain, irrespective of education. In the case of respondents of Turkish origin, immigration after the age of seven plays a slightly negative role with regard to professional ranking.
* Original title: Familienstand, Schulbildung und Erwerbstätigkeit junger Erwachsener: Eine Analyse der ethnischen und geschlechtsspezifischen Ungleichheiten – Erste Ergebnisse des Integrationssurveys des BiB (full text in German only)